Use Edited American English In Academic Essays On Smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smokingtobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.) The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica and South America.[1] Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus.[2][3]

German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II.[4] In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between smoking and cancer.[5] Evidence continued to mount in the 1980s, which prompted political action against the practice. Rates of consumption since 1965 in the developed world have either peaked or declined.[6] However, they continue to climb in the developing world.[7]

Smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco, and tobacco is the most common substance smoked. The agricultural product is often mixed with additives[8] and then combusted. The resulting smoke is then inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs or the oral mucosa.[9] Combustion was traditionally enhanced by addition of potassium or other nitrates.[citation needed] Many substances in cigarette smoke trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate, alertness[10] and reaction time, among other things.[11]Dopamine and endorphins are released, which are often associated with pleasure.[12] As of 2008 to 2010, tobacco is used by about 49% of men and 11% of women aged 15 or older in fourteen low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam), with about 80% of this usage in the form of smoking.[13] The gender gap tends to be less pronounced in lower age groups.[14][15]

Many smokers begin during adolescence or early adulthood.[16] During the early stages, a combination of perceived pleasure acting as positive reinforcement and desire to respond to social peer pressure may offset the unpleasant symptoms of initial use, which typically include nausea and coughing. After an individual has smoked for some years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations to continue.

In a study conducted by Jennifer O'Loughlin and colleagues, first smoking experiences of seventh-grade students were studied.[17] They found out that the most common factor leading students to smoke is cigarette advertisements. Smoking by parents, siblings and friends also encourages students to smoke.[17]

History[edit]

Main articles: History of tobacco and History of smoking

Use in ancient cultures[edit]

Smoking's history dates back to as early as 5000–3000 BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America; consumption later evolved into burning the plant substance either by accident or with intent of exploring other means of consumption.[1] The practice worked its way into shamanistic rituals.[18] Many ancient civilizations — such as the Babylonians, the Indians, and the Chinese — burnt incense during religious rituals. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.[19] The smoking of tobacco and various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit world.

Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item and would often smoke it in ceremonial pipes, either in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains.[20] Adults as well as children enjoyed the practice.[21] It was believed that tobacco was a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke was capable of carrying one's thoughts and prayers to heaven.[22]

Apart from smoking, tobacco had a number of uses as medicine. As a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and occasionally as a poultice. Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds, especially if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small desert Sage, Salvia dorrii, or the root of Indian balsam or cough root, Leptotaenia multifida, the addition of which was thought to be particularly good for asthma and tuberculosis.[23]

Popularization[edit]

For more about the commercial development of tobacco, see History of commercial tobacco in the United States.

In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop. The demand quickly grew as tobacco, referred to as "brown gold", revived the Virginia joint stock company from its failed gold expeditions.[24] In order to meet demands from the Old World, tobacco was grown in succession, quickly depleting the soil. This became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, and likewise an expansion of tobacco production.[25]Indentured servitude became the primary labor force up until Bacon's Rebellion, from which the focus turned to slavery.[26] This trend abated following the American Revolution as slavery became regarded as unprofitable. However, the practice was revived in 1794 with the invention of the cotton gin.[27]

Frenchman Jean Nicot (from whose name the word nicotine is derived) introduced tobacco to France in 1560, and tobacco then spread to England. The first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol in 1556, seen "emitting smoke from his nostrils".[2] Like tea, coffee and opium, tobacco was just one of many intoxicants that was originally used as a form of medicine.[28] Tobacco was introduced around 1600 by French merchants in what today is modern-day Gambia and Senegal. At the same time, caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the areas around Timbuktu, and the Portuguese brought the commodity (and the plant) to southern Africa, establishing the popularity of tobacco throughout all of Africa by the 1650s.

Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders. James VI and I, King of Scotland and England, produced the treatise A Counterblaste to Tobacco in 1604, and also introduced excise duty on the product. Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire 1623–40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming it was a threat to public morals and health. The Chongzhen Emperor of China issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and the overthrow of the Ming dynasty. Later, the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty, would proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery". In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to the military economy by letting valuable farmland go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops.[29]

Religious leaders have often been prominent among those who considered smoking immoral or outright blasphemous. In 1634, the Patriarch of Moscow forbade the sale of tobacco, and sentenced men and women who flouted the ban to have their nostrils slit and their backs flayed. Pope Urban VIII likewise condemned smoking on holy places in a papal bull of 1624. Despite some concerted efforts, restrictions and bans were largely ignored. When James I of England, a staunch anti-smoker and the author of A Counterblaste to Tobacco, tried to curb the new trend by enforcing a 4000% tax increase on tobacco in 1604 it was unsuccessful, as suggested by the presence of around 7,000 tobacco outlets in London by the early 17th century. From this point on for some centuries, several administrations withdrew from efforts at discouragement and instead turned tobacco trade and cultivation into sometimes lucrative government monopolies.[30][31]

By the mid-17th century most major civilizations had been introduced to tobacco smoking and in many cases had already assimilated it into the native culture, despite some continued attempts upon the parts of rulers to eliminate the practice with penalties or fines. Tobacco, both product and plant, followed the major trade routes to major ports and markets, and then on into the hinterlands. The English language term smoking appears to have entered currency in the late 18th century, before which less abbreviated descriptions of the practice such as drinking smoke were also in use.[2]

Growth in the US remained stable until the American Civil War in 1860s, when the primary agricultural workforce shifted from slavery to sharecropping. This, along with a change in demand, accompanied the industrialization of cigarette production as craftsman James Bonsack created a machine in 1881 to partially automate their manufacture.[32]

Social attitudes and public health[edit]

In Germany, anti-smoking groups, often associated with anti-liquor groups,[33] first published advocacy against the consumption of tobacco in the journal Der Tabakgegner (The Tobacco Opponent) in 1912 and 1932. In 1929, Fritz Lickint of Dresden, Germany, published a paper containing formal statistical evidence of a lung cancer–tobacco link. During the Great Depression Adolf Hitler condemned his earlier smoking habit as a waste of money,[34] and later with stronger assertions. This movement was further strengthened with Nazi reproductive policy as women who smoked were viewed as unsuitable to be wives and mothers in a German family.[35]

The anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany did not reach across enemy lines during the Second World War, as anti-smoking groups quickly lost popular support. By the end of the Second World War, American cigarette manufacturers quickly reentered the German black market. Illegal smuggling of tobacco became prevalent,[36] and leaders of the Nazi anti-smoking campaign were silenced.[37] As part of the Marshall Plan, the United States shipped free tobacco to Germany; with 24,000 tons in 1948 and 69,000 tons in 1949.[36] Per capita yearly cigarette consumption in post-war Germany steadily rose from 460 in 1950 to 1,523 in 1963.[4] By the end of the 20th century, anti-smoking campaigns in Germany were unable to exceed the effectiveness of the Nazi-era climax in the years 1939–41 and German tobacco health research was described by Robert N. Proctor as "muted".[4]

In 1950, Richard Doll published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung cancer.[38] Beginning in December 1952, the magazine Reader's Digest published "Cancer by the Carton", a series of articles that linked smoking with lung cancer.[39]

In 1954, the British Doctors Study, a prospective study of some 40 thousand doctors for about 2.5 years, confirmed the suggestion, based on which the government issued advice that smoking and lung cancer rates were related.[5] In January 1964, the United States Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health likewise began suggesting the relationship between smoking and cancer.[40]

As scientific evidence mounted in the 1980s, tobacco companies claimed contributory negligence as the adverse health effects were previously unknown or lacked substantial credibility. Health authorities sided with these claims up until 1998, from which they reversed their position. The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, originally between the four largest US tobacco companies and the Attorneys General of 46 states, restricted certain types of tobacco advertisement and required payments for health compensation; which later amounted to the largest civil settlement in United States history.

Social campaigns have been instituted in many places to discourage smoking, such as Canada's National Non-Smoking Week.

From 1965 to 2006, rates of smoking in the United States declined from 42% to 20.8%.[6] The majority of those who quit were professional, affluent men. Although the per-capita number of smokers decreased, the average number of cigarettes consumed per person per day increased from 22 in 1954 to 30 in 1978. This paradoxical event suggests that those who quit smoked less, while those who continued to smoke moved to smoke more light cigarettes.[42] The trend has been paralleled by many industrialized nations as rates have either leveled-off or declined. In the developing world, however, tobacco consumption continues to rise at 3.4% in 2002.[7] In Africa, smoking is in most areas considered to be modern, and many of the strong adverse opinions that prevail in the West receive much less attention.[43] Today Russia leads as the top consumer of tobacco followed by Indonesia, Laos, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Jordan, and China.[44]

Consumption[edit]

Methods[edit]

For more about the production of the agricultural product, see Cultivation of tobacco, Types of tobacco, Curing of tobacco, and Tobacco products

Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. The genus contains a number of species, however, Nicotiana tabacum is the most commonly grown. Nicotiana rustica follows as second containing higher concentrations of nicotine. These leaves are harvested and cured to allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves which can be attributed to sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavors. Before packaging, the tobacco is often combined with other additives in order to enhance the addictive potency, shift the products pH, or improve the effects of smoke by making it more palatable. In the United States these additives are regulated to 599 substances.[8] The product is then processed, packaged, and shipped to consumer markets.

Beedi
Beedis are thin South Asian cigarettes filled with tobacco flakes and wrapped in a tendu leaf tied with a string at one end. They produce higher levels of carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar than cigarettes typical in the United States.[45][46]
Cigars
Cigars are tightly rolled bundles of dried and fermented tobacco which are ignited so that smoke may be drawn into the smoker's mouth. They are generally not inhaled because of the high alkalinity of the smoke, which can quickly become irritating to the trachea and lungs. The prevalence of cigar smoking varies depending on location, historical period, and population surveyed, and prevalence estimates vary somewhat depending on the survey method. The United States is the top consuming country by far, followed by Germany and the United Kingdom; the US and Western Europe account for about 75% of cigar sales worldwide.[47] As of 2005 it is estimated that 4.3% of men and 0.3% of women smoke cigars in the USA.[48]
Cigarettes
Cigarettes, French for "small cigar", are a product consumed through smoking and manufactured out of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives, which are then rolled or stuffed into a paper-wrapped cylinder.[8] Cigarettes are ignited and inhaled, usually through a cellulose acetate filter, into the mouth and lungs.
Hookah
Hookah are a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking. Originally from India. The hookah was a symbol of pride and honor for the landlords, kings and other such high class people. Now, the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in the Middle East. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can be used for smoking herbal fruits, tobacco, or cannabis.
Kretek
Kretek are cigarettes made with a complex blend of tobacco, cloves and a flavoring "sauce". It was first introduced in the 1880s in Kudus, Java, to deliver the medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs. The quality and variety of tobacco play an important role in kretek production, from which kretek can contain more than 30 types of tobacco. Minced dried clove buds weighing about one-third of the tobacco blend are added to add flavoring. In 2004 the United States prohibited cigarettes from having a "characterizing flavor" of certain ingredients other than tobacco and menthol, thereby removing kretek from being classified as cigarettes.[49]
Passive smoking
Passive smoking is the usually involuntary consumption of smoked tobacco. Second-hand smoke (SHS) is the consumption where the burning end is present, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or third-hand smoke is the consumption of the smoke that remains after the burning end has been extinguished. Because of its perceived negative implications, this form of consumption has played a central role in the regulation of tobacco products.
Pipe smoking
Pipe smoking typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). Shredded pieces of tobacco are placed into the chamber and ignited.
Roll-your-own
Roll-your-own or hand-rolled cigarettes, often called "rollies", "cigi" or "Roll-ups", are very popular particularly in European countries and the UK. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers, and filters all bought separately. They are usually much cheaper than ready-made cigarettes and small contraptions can be bought making the process easier.
Vaporizer
A vaporizer is a device used to sublimate the active ingredients of plant material. Rather than burning the herb, which produces potentially irritating, toxic, or carcinogenic by-products; a vaporizer heats the material in a partial vacuum so that the active compounds contained in the plant boil off into a vapor. This method is often preferable when medically administrating the smoke substance, as opposed to directly pyrolyzing the plant material.

Physiology[edit]

See also: Chain smoking

The active substances in tobacco, especially cigarettes, are administered by burning the leaves and inhaling the vaporized gas that results. This quickly and effectively delivers substances into the bloodstream by absorption through the alveoli in the lungs. The lungs contain some 300 million alveoli, which amounts to a surface area of over 70 m2 (about the size of a tennis court). This method is not completely efficient as not all of the smoke will be inhaled, and some amount of the active substances will be lost in the process of combustion, pyrolysis.[9] Pipe and Cigar smoke are not inhaled because of its high alkalinity, which are irritating to the trachea and lungs. However, because of its higher alkalinity (pH 8.5) compared to cigarette smoke (pH 5.3), non-ionized nicotine is more readily absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth.[50] Nicotine absorption from cigar and pipe, however, is much less than that from cigarette smoke.[51] Nicotine and cocaine activate similar patterns of neurons, which supports the existence of common substrates among these drugs.[52]

The inhaled nicotine mimics nicotinic acetylcholine which when bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents the reuptake of acetylcholine thereby increasing that neurotransmitter in those areas of the body.[53] These nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are located in the central nervous system and at the nerve-muscle junction of skeletal muscles; whose activity increases heart rate, alertness,[10] and faster reaction times.[11] Nicotine acetylcholine stimulation is not directly addictive. However, since dopamine-releasing neurons are abundant on nicotine receptors, dopamine is released; and, in the nucleus accumbens, dopamine is associated with motivation causing reinforcing behavior.[54] Dopamine increase, in the prefrontal cortex, may also increase working memory.[55]

When tobacco is smoked, most of the nicotine is pyrolyzed. However, a dose sufficient to cause mild somatic dependency and mild to strong psychological dependency remains. There is also a formation of harmane (a MAO inhibitor) from the acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke. This may play a role in nicotine addiction, by facilitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens as a response to nicotine stimuli.[56] Using rat studies, withdrawal after repeated exposure to nicotine results in less responsive nucleus accumbens cells, which produce dopamine responsible for reinforcement.[57]

Demographics[edit]

Main article: Prevalence of tobacco consumption

As of 2000, smoking was practiced by around 1.22 billion people. At current rates of 'smoker replacement' and market growth, this may reach around 1.9 billion in 2025.[58]

Smoking may be up to five times more prevalent among men than women in some communities,[58] although the gender gap usually declines with younger age.[14][15] In some developed countries smoking rates for men have peaked and begun to decline, while for women they continue to climb.[59]

As of 2002, about twenty percent of young teenagers (13–15) smoked worldwide. From which 80,000 to 100,000 children begin smoking every day, roughly half of whom live in Asia. Half of those who begin smoking in adolescent years are projected to go on to smoke for 15 to 20 years.[7]

The World Health Organization (WHO) states that "Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor". Of the 1.22 billion smokers, 1 billion of them live in developing or transitional economies. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world.[60] In the developing world, however, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year as of 2002.[7]

The WHO in 2004 projected 58.8 million deaths to occur globally,[61] from which 5.4 million are tobacco-attributed,[62] and 4.9 million as of 2007.[63] As of 2002, 70% of the deaths are in developing countries.[63] As of 2017, smoking causes one in ten deaths worldwide, with half of those deaths in the US, China, India and Russia.[64]

Psychology[edit]

Takeup[edit]

Most smokers begin smoking during adolescence or early adulthood. Some studies also show that smoking can also be linked to various mental health complications.[66] Smoking has elements of risk-taking and rebellion, which often appeal to young people. The presence of peers that smoke and media featuring high-status models smoking may also encourage smoking. Because teenagers are influenced more by their peers than by adults, attempts by parents, schools, and health professionals at preventing people from trying cigarettes are often unsuccessful.[67][68]

Children of smoking parents are more likely to smoke than children with non-smoking parents. Children of parents who smoke are less likely to quit smoking.[16] One study found that parental smoking cessation was associated with less adolescent smoking, except when the other parent currently smoked.[69] A current study tested the relation of adolescent smoking to rules regulating where adults are allowed to smoke in the home. Results showed that restrictive home smoking policies were associated with lower likelihood of trying smoking for both middle and high school students.[70]

Behavioural research generally indicates that teenagers begin their smoking habits due to peer pressure, and cultural influence portrayed by friends. However, one study found that direct pressure to smoke cigarettes played a less significant part in adolescent smoking, with adolescents also reporting low levels of both normative and direct pressure to smoke cigarettes.[71] Mere exposure to tobacco retailers may motivate smoking behaviour in adults.[72] A similar study suggested that individuals may play a more active role in starting to smoke than has previously been thought and that social processes other than peer pressure also need to be taken into account.[73] Another study's results indicated that peer pressure was significantly associated with smoking behavior across all age and gender cohorts, but that intrapersonal factors were significantly more important to the smoking behavior of 12- to 13-year-old girls than same-age boys. Within the 14- to 15-year-old age group, one peer pressure variable emerged as a significantly more important predictor of girls' than boys' smoking.[74] It is debated whether peer pressure or self-selection is a greater cause of adolescent smoking.

Psychologists such as Hans Eysenck have developed a personality profile for the typical smoker. Extraversion is the trait that is most associated with smoking, and smokers tend to be sociable, impulsive, risk taking, and excitement seeking individuals.[75] Although personality and social factors may make people likely to smoke, the actual habit is a function of operant conditioning. During the early stages, smoking provides pleasurable sensations (because of its action on the dopamine system) and thus serves as a source of positive reinforcement.

Persistence[edit]

The reasons given by some smokers for this activity have been categorized as addictive smoking, pleasure from smoking, tension reduction/relaxation, social smoking, stimulation, habit/automatism, and handling. There are gender differences in how much each of these reasons contribute, with females more likely than males to cite tension reduction/relaxation, stimulation and social smoking.[76]

Some smokers argue that the depressant effect of smoking allows them to calm their nerves, often allowing for increased concentration. However, according to the Imperial College London, "Nicotine seems to provide both a stimulant and a depressant effect, and it is likely that the effect it has at any time is determined by the mood of the user, the environment and the circumstances of use. Studies have suggested that low doses have a depressant effect, while higher doses have stimulant effect."[77]

Patterns[edit]

A number of studies have established that cigarette sales and smoking follow distinct time-related patterns. For example, cigarette sales in the United States of America have been shown to follow a strongly seasonal pattern, with the high months being the months of summer, and the low months being the winter months.[78]

Similarly, smoking has been shown to follow distinct circadian patterns during the waking day—with the high point usually occurring shortly after waking in the morning, and shortly before going to sleep at night.[79]

Impact[edit]

Economic[edit]

See also: Tobacco industry

In countries where there is a universally funded healthcare system, the government covers the cost of medical care for smokers who become ill through smoking in the form of increased taxes. Two broad debating positions exist on this front, the "pro-smoking" argument suggesting that heavy smokers generally don't live long enough to develop the costly and chronic illnesses which affect the elderly, reducing society's healthcare burden, and the "anti-smoking" argument suggests that the healthcare burden is increased because smokers get chronic illnesses younger and at a higher rate than the general population. Data on both positions has been contested. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published research in 2002 claiming that the cost of each pack of cigarettes sold in the United States was more than $7 in medical care and lost productivity.[80] The cost may be higher, with another study putting it as high as $41 per pack, most of which however is on the individual and his/her family.[81] This is how one author of that study puts it when he explains the very low cost for others: "The reason the number is low is that for private pensions, Social Security, and Medicare — the biggest factors in calculating costs to society — smoking actually saves money. Smokers die at a younger age and don't draw on the funds they've paid into those systems."[81] Other research demonstrates that premature death caused by smoking may redistribute Social Security income in unexpected ways that affect behavior and reduce the economic well-being of smokers and their dependents.[82] To further support this, whatever the rate of smoking consumption is per day, smokers have a greater lifetime medical cost on average compared to a non smoker by an estimated $6000 [83] Between the cost for lost productivity and health care expenditures combined, cigarette smoking costs at least 193 billion dollars (Research also shows that smokers earn less money than nonsmokers[84]). As for secondhand smoke, the cost is over 10 billion dollars.[85]

By contrast, some non-scientific studies, including one conducted by Philip Morris in the Czech Republic called Public Finance Balance of Smoking in the Czech Republic[86] and another by the Cato Institute,[87] support the opposite position. Philip Morris has explicitly apologised for the former study, saying: "The funding and public release of this study which, among other things, detailed purported cost savings to the Czech Republic due to premature deaths of smokers, exhibited terrible judgment as well as a complete and unacceptable disregard of basic human values. For one of our tobacco companies to commission this study was not just a terrible mistake, it was wrong. All of us at Philip Morris, no matter where we work, are extremely sorry for this. No one benefits from the very real, serious and significant diseases caused by smoking."[86]

Between 1970 and 1995, per-capita cigarette consumption in poorer developing countries increased by 67 percent, while it dropped by 10 percent in the richer developed world. Eighty percent of smokers now live in less developed countries. By 2030, the World Health Organization (WHO) forecasts that 10 million people a year will die of smoking-related illness, making it the single biggest cause of death worldwide, with the largest increase to be among women. WHO forecasts the 21st century's death rate from smoking to be ten times the 20th century's rate ("Washingtonian" magazine, December 2007).

Health[edit]

Main article: Health effects of tobacco

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and a major public health concern.[88]

There are 1.1 billion tobacco users in the world. One person dies every six seconds from a tobacco related disease.[89]

Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), emphysema, and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, esophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer).[16] Cigarette smoking increases the risk of Crohn's disease as well as the severity of the course of the disease.[91] It is also the number one cause of bladder cancer. The smoke from tobacco elicits carcinogenic effects on the tissues of the body that are exposed to the smoke.[92]

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of over 5,000 identified chemicals, of which 98 are known to have specific toxicological properties.[16][93] The most important chemicals causing cancer are those that produce DNA damage since such damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer.[94][95] Cunningham et al.[96] combined the microgram weight of the compound in the smoke of one cigarette with the known genotoxic effect per microgram to identify the most carcinogenic compounds in cigarette smoke. The seven most important carcinogens in tobacco smoke are shown in the table, along with DNA alterations they cause.

See also: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Tobacco smoke can combine with other carcinogens present within the environment in order to produce elevated degrees of lung cancer.

Cigarette smoking has also been associated with sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.[104]

The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004[105] and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century.[106] Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."[107] Although 70% of smokers state their intention to quit only 3-5% are actually successful in doing so.[83]

The probabilities of death from lung cancer before age 75 in the United Kingdom are 0.2% for men who never smoked (0.4% for women), 5.5% for male former smokers (2.6% in women), 15.9% for current male smokers (9.5% for women) and 24.4% for male “heavy smokers” defined as smoking more than 5 cigarettes per day (18.5% for women).[108] Tobacco smoke can combine with other carcinogens present within the environment in order to produce elevated degrees of lung cancer.

Rates of smoking have generally leveled-off or declined in the developed world. Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006 falling from 42% to 20.8% in adults.[109] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[110]

Second-hand smoke presents a known health risk, to which six hundred thousand deaths were attributed in 2004. It also has been known to produce skin conditions such as freckles and dryness.[111]

In 2015, a meta-analysis found that smokers were at greater risk of developing psychotic illness.[112] Tobacco has also been described an anaphrodisiac due to its propensity for causing erectile dysfunction.[113]

Social[edit]

See also: Tobacco advertising and Religious views on smoking

Famous smokers of the past used cigarettes or pipes as part of their image, such as Jean-Paul Sartre's Gauloises-brand cigarettes; Albert Einstein's, Douglas MacArthur's, Bertrand Russell's, and Bing Crosby's pipes; or the news broadcaster Edward R. Murrow's cigarette. Writers in particular seem to be known for smoking, for example, Cornell Professor Richard Klein's book Cigarettes are Sublime for the analysis, by this professor of French literature, of the role smoking plays in 19th and 20th century letters. The popular author Kurt Vonnegut addressed his addiction to cigarettes within his novels. British Prime Minister Harold Wilson was well known for smoking a pipe in public as was Winston Churchill for his cigars. Sherlock Holmes, the fictional detective created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle smoked a pipe, cigarettes, and cigars. The DCVertigo comic book character, John Constantine, created by Alan Moore, is synonymous with smoking, so much so that the first storyline by Preacher creator, Garth Ennis, centered around John Constantine contracting lung cancer. Professional wrestlerJames Fullington, while in character as "The Sandman", is a chronic smoker in order to appear "tough".

The problem of smoking at home is particularly difficult for women in many cultures (especially Arab cultures), where it may not be acceptable for a woman to ask her husband not to smoke at home or in the presence of her children. Studies have shown that pollution levels for smoking areas indoors are higher than levels found on busy roadways, in closed motor garages, and during fire storms.[clarification needed] Furthermore, smoke can spread from one room to another, even if doors to the smoking area are closed.[114]

The ceremonial smoking of tobacco, and praying with a sacred pipe, is a prominent part of the religious ceremonies of a number of Native American Nations. Sema, the Anishinaabe

Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex, 16th century.
Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior by Dirck Hals, 1627.
Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, as shown on U.S. patent 238,640.
Newsies smoking at Skeeter's Branch, St. Louis, MO. Photograph by Lewis Hine, 1910
A lengthy study conducted in order to establish the strong association necessary for legislative action (US cigarette consumption per person blue, male lung cancer rate green)
Tendu Patta (Leaf) Collection for Beedi industries
A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake.

Percentage of females smoking any tobacco product

Percentage of males smoking any tobacco product. Note that there is a difference between the scales used for females and the scales used for males.[44]

Common adverse effects of tobacco smoking. The more common effects are in bold face.[90]

2.4: Spelling and Punctuation

This resource was written by Jaclyn M. Wells.
Last edited by Allen Brizee on March 23, 2009 .

Summary:
This resource discusses the conventions of Edited American English (EAE), which is the language standard applied to the GED. Specifically, this page deals with spelling and punctuation.

Conventions of Edited American English

When you are in a rush to get your ideas on paper, it can be easy to overlook sentence-level correctness. However, carefully editing your composition for correctness is an important step to writing the GED essay. Following conventions of Edited American English (EAE) is one factor readers will use to score your essay. This lesson provides information about the conventions of EAE. The lesson also provides examples of common errors and how to correct them. Lastly, the lesson discusses strategies for finding and correcting your own errors. As you review ESE and practice finding your errors, the lessons for Part I of the Language Arts Writing Test might also be useful.

You may initially feel overwhelmed by the task of proofreading for Edited American English. Part of this is that “Edited American English” sounds like a pretty broad term, and it can be hard to know where to begin. However, there are a number of specifics you should review. Once you know what these are, proofreading becomes a less intimidating task. The conventions of EAE that you should look for when proofreading are listed below.

  • Spelling: Is each word correctly spelled?
  • Punctuation: Have you used periods, question marks, commas, colons, and other punctuation marks correctly?
  • Complete Sentences: Are all of your sentences complete, and neither fragment nor run-on sentences?
  • Sentence Structure: Do you vary the sentence structure you use?
  • Subject-Verb Agreement: Do the subjects and verbs in each sentence agree?
  • Verb Tense: Is each verb in the correct tense?
  • Capital Letters: Do you use capital letters correctly?

Common Errors

The list below includes many common errors that writers make. Reviewing this list will help you know what to look for when proofreading your own writing. With time, you will get used to the errors that you make most often. Using this list will also help you proofread because you will understand what errors to look out for when revising your writing.

Spelling

IE/EI: Words like “receive” and “their” often cause problems for writers because it is so hard to remember whether the “i” or the “e” comes first.

You’ve probably heard the rule below before. Keep it in mind while checking your IE/EI words.

Write I before E
Except after C
Or when it sounds like an A
As in "neighbor" and "weigh"

There are a few exceptions to the rule: seize, either, weird, height, foreign, leisure, conscience, counterfeit, forfeit, leisure, neither, science, species, sufficient.

Homonyms: These are words that sound alike but are spelled differently. Even very experienced writers have difficulty with homonyms, especially when writing quickly. Below are some words that people commonly confuse:

  • They’re/Their/There
  • Hear/Here
  • Your/You’re, Whose/Who’s and Its/It’s
  • Accept/Except
  • Affect/Effect
  • To/Two/Too
  • Whole/Hole
  • Write/Right/Rite
  • Whether/Weather

Punctuation

Comma splices: A comma splice occurs when you try to link two main clauses with just a comma, as in the following:

I enjoy watching television, I really like reality shows.

You can correct a comma splice by adding a conjunction (and, but, for, or, so, yet):

I enjoy watching television, and I really like reality shows.

Apostrophes: Remember that you need an apostrophe ( ‘ ) each time you show possession (as in, Mike’s house) or use a contraction (as in, they’re for they are or he’s for he is). You don’t need an apostrophe when making a word plural (as in, Rachel has four cats).

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