Footnote Apa Style Example Essay

Footnotes and Endnotes

Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:31:05

APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.

When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.

Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.3)

When using the footnote function in a word-processing program like Microsoft Word, place all footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Double-space throughout.

1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.

Content Notes

Content notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing content notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.

Content notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.

1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.

Copyright Permission Notes

If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s). All other sources simply appear in the reference list.

Follow the same formatting rules as with content notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.

If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Begin the citation with “Note.”

Note. From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122. Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.

Footnotes are used in some books and research work, particularly work published in the social sciences discipline. Footnotes are intended to provide readers with further information or to share copyright permission information.

A few footnote usage rules:

  • Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, not rebeginning the numbering on each page.
  • Each quotation requires a footnote.
  • Footnotes are always double-spaced.
  • Footnotes are referenced using a superscript number.

While AP style discourages the use of footnotes in most circumstances, footnotes are used in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).

Footnotes in Research 

  • Footnotes can be found on the bottom of the same page as the original quote to which it is referring, or at the end of the paper or book entirely, after the page of References.
  • Entire citations are not necessary in footnotes; instead, the footnote should merely refer to the name of the publication and date as listed on the reference page.
  • If a copyright permission footnote is added, the original letter regarding copyright permission must be attached to the paper. 

Footnote Format Examples

Sample Footnote #1

Text within the research paper: 

It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn’s and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms.¹

Footnote:

¹See the CCFA.org website for more information about the symptoms that Crohn’s and Colitis patients may experience. 

Sample Footnote #2

Text within the research paper:

A variety of research suggests that developing basic literacy skills in early childhood can contribute to greater success in acquiring strong comprehension skills later in school.²

Footnote: 

²A variety of research based articles and ideas for developing early learning skills can be found at www.readingrockets.org.

Sample Footnote #3

Text within the research paper: 

While it is generally assumed that all large dogs are in need of copious amounts of exercise that would prevent them from being suitable pets for smaller residences, recent research has suggested this is a fallacy.³

Footnote: 

³See Smith (2013) to see more information specific to large dogs and exercise needs. 

Sample Footnote #4

Text within the research paper: 

In many states, malpractice lawsuit filings have limitations that may prevent the injured from pursuing the route necessary to receive compensation for injuries due to negligence by doctors, nurses, or other hospital staff.4

Footnote:

4Refer to Johannsen (2007) to access information about limitations by state. 

Sample Footnote #5

Text within the research paper: 

While most candy and sweet treats are believed to have a negative effect on those with, or susceptible to getting, diabetes, more research is supporting the idea that chocolate, when consumed in moderation, can have positive effects on the body.5

Footnote:

5Refer to Braunshweig (2011) for specific benefits of chocolate consumption.

Sample Footnote #6

Text within the research paper: 

The development of aptitude with technology in young children should not overshadow the necessity of play which is crucial to building important gross and fine motor skills in early childhood.6

Footnote:

6See Harsenwusen (2014) for research demonstrating the lack of motor skill development in young children using tablets for more than an hour each day.

Sample Footnote #7

Text within the research paper: 

Interstitial cystitis is a condition that can cause pain and embarrassment for women of any age, and affects many aspects of her life.7

Footnote:

7See www.urologyhealth.org for more information on the debilitating effects intersitial cystitis can have. 

Copyright Permission Footnote

Footnote:

From: “How To Raise a Technologically Competent Child,” by Smuten, F. and Dorgwab, T., 2011, Journal of Early Childhood Development, 76, page 23. Copyright 2011 by Dragon Press. Reprinted with Permission.

These are all examples of footnotes in different contexts.

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Footnote Examples

By YourDictionary

Footnotes are used in some books and research work, particularly work published in the social sciences discipline. Footnotes are intended to provide readers with further information or to share copyright permission information. A few footnote usage rules: Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, not rebeginning the numbering on each page. Each quotation requires a footnote. Footnotes are always double-spaced. Footnotes are referenced using a superscript number. While AP style discourages the use of footnotes in most circumstances, footnotes are used in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).

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