Set the theoretical model for your dissertation
By this point in STAGE FIVE, you should understand the broader literature within which your main journal article and chosen route fit (i.e., STEP ONE), have critically evaluated the main journal article and its components parts (i.e., STEP TWO), and have justified the route you have chosen, and the approach within that route (i.e., STEP THREE). It is now time to use this knowledge to set the theoretical model for your dissertation (i.e., STEP FOUR). However, if you are not answering a relationship-based hypothesis/research question in your dissertation, you can jump to STEP FIVE, since the theoretical models that we show you in this step are not suitable for descriptive research questions or comparative hypotheses/research questions [see STAGE THREE: Setting research questions and/or hypotheses if you can't remember if the difference between these types of research questions/hypotheses].
Supervisors and/or dissertation guidelines often suggest (or state) that you need to include a conceptual framework or theoretical model in your dissertation. These are similar in the sense that both conceptual frameworks and theoretical models help readers to quickly understand the main theory (or theories) that are you are interested in, the principal concepts/constructs you examining/measuring, how you think that these different theories and concepts/constructs might interact, amongst other goals that we discuss later in this article. The terms conceptual framework and theoretical model are often used interchangeably, but we prefer to view conceptual frameworks as a tool more often used in qualitative research, with theoretical models being something that we try to build in quantitative research.
Theoretical models are useful in order to: (a) set the boundaries/scope of the research project in terms of the theories and constructs that will be studied and measured; (b) illustrate the research hypotheses to be tested, and the predictions that are being made (if any) about the relationship between the constructs under study; and (c) provide a roadmap at the end of your Literature Review chapter (usually Chapter Two: Literature Review), which brings together your research hypotheses, theories, and constructs that have been critically discussed in a way that can be clearly tested. Ultimately, theoretical models are useful frameworks for you and the people reading your dissertation, helping to describe what you are studying in a clear, succinct, and visual way. They provide an overall picture of what you research is trying to achieve.
Unfortunately, theoretical models are often poorly constructed because they fail to illustrate the links between theory, the constructs you should have identified, and the hypotheses (and their predictions, if any) that you will have constructed. However, by the end of STEP FOUR, you should be able to adopt or modify the theoretical model put forward in the main journal article, or create a new theoretical model from scratch.
If you are following Route A: Duplication or Route B: Generalisation, you should be able to adopt, or at most modify the theoretical model put forward in the main journal article. However, if (a) a theoretical model is not included in the main journal article, (b) the theoretical model proposed is unclear, or (c) you are following Route C: Extension, you may need to create your own theoretical model. If you plan to simply adopt the theoretical model put forward in the main journal article, you can skip STEP FOUR and move onto STAGE SIX: Setting your research strategy. However, to learn more about modifying such a theoretical model, and moreover, creating a theoretical model, follow the four steps below:
The theoretical framework is one of the more infamous components of a dissertation. A good theoretical framework gives you a strong scientific research base and provides support for the rest of your dissertation. But what exactly is a theoretical framework? And how do you write one?
The goal of a theoretical framework
After you have identified your problem statement and research question(s), it is important to determine what theories and ideas exist in relation to your chosen subject.
By presenting this information, you ‘frame’ your research and show that you are knowledgeable about the key concepts, theories, and models that relate to your topic.
The definitions and models you select also give your research direction, as you will continue to build on these choices in different stages of your project.
The theoretical framework also provides scientific justification for your investigation: it shows that your research is not just coming “out of the blue,” but that it is both grounded in and based on scientific theory.
How to determine the contents of a theoretical framework
As noted above, it is important that you cite existing theories and ideas that are relevant to your chosen topic within the theoretical framework. This includes defining key terms from your problem statement and research questions/hypotheses. An important first step is therefore to identify these concepts.
1. Select key concepts
Sample problem statement and research questions: Company X is struggling with the problem that many online customers do not return to make subsequent purchases. Management wants to increase customer loyalty and believes that improved customer satisfaction will play a major role in achieving this goal. To investigate this problem, you have identified and plan to focus on the following problem statement, objective, and research questions:
Problem: Many online customers do not return to make subsequent purchases.
Objective: To increase customer loyalty and thereby generate more revenue.
Research question: ‘How can the satisfaction of company X’s online customers be improved in order to increase customer loyalty?’
- ‘What is the relationship between customer loyalty and costumer satisfaction?’
- ‘How satisfied and loyal are company X’s online costumers currently?’
- ‘What factors affect the satisfaction and loyalty of company X’s online costumers?’
The concepts of “customer loyalty” and “customer satisfaction” are critical to this study and will be measured as part of the research. As such they are key concepts to define within the theoretical framework.
2. Define and evaluate relevant concepts, theories, and models
A literature review is first used to determine how other researchers have defined these key concepts. You should then critically compare the definitions that different authors have proposed. The last step is to choose the definition that best fits your research and justify why this is the case.
It is also important to indicate if there are any notable links between these concepts.
Apart from that, you should describe any relevant theories and models that relate to your key concepts and argue why you are or are not applying them to your own research.
3. Consider adding other elements to your theoretical framework
Depending on your topic or discipline, a comprehensive review of the state of affairs in relation to your research topic may also be helpful to include in your theoretical framework.
Here it’s important to understand the expectations of your supervisor or program in advance. Theoretical problems are more likely to require a “state of affairs” overview than more practical problems.
Analyzing the research field will give you an idea of what similar studies have looked at and found regarding the problem. This will clarify the position of your research in relation to existing knowledge in the field.
Following these steps will help to ensure that you are presenting a solid overview:
- Describe what discussions on the subject exist within the literature.
- Explain what methods, theories, and models other authors have applied. In doing so, always argue why a particular theory or model is or is not appropriate for your own research.
- Analyze the similarities and differences between your own research and earlier studies.
- Explain how your study adds to knowledge that already exists on the subject.
What kinds of research questions can you answer within a theoretical framework?
The theoretical framework can be used to answer descriptive research questions that only require literature (or desk) research. For example, theory alone is sufficient to answer the research question: ‘What is the relationship between customer loyalty and customer satisfaction?’.
In contrast, sub-questions such as ‘How satisfied are company X’s online customers currently?’ cannot be answered in the theoretical framework, given that field research is needed.
The theoretical framework (and the literature review that serves as its backbone) can also be used to further analyze existing findings and hypotheses. It may also be used to formulate and evaluate hypotheses of your own, which you can later test during the qualitative or quantitative research of your study.
The structure of the theoretical framework
There are no fixed rules for structuring a theoretical framework. The important thing is to create a structure that is logical. One way to do this is to draw on your research questions/hypotheses and some of your key terms.
For example, you could create a section or paragraph that looks at each question, hypothesis, or key concept. Within that text, you could then explore the theories and models that are relevant to that particular item.
How long should the theoretical framework be?
The rules about length are not clear either, but a theoretical framework is on average three to five pages long.
To makes things clearer, you might find it useful to include models or other graphics within the theoretical framework. However, if you are concerned about space, you can place these illustrations in an appendix (which you can then refer to in the main text).
Sample theoretical framework
We have prepared a sample theoretical framework that will give you a sense of what this important part of a dissertation may look like.
Sample theoretical framework