Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. It has a population of 4,875,858. Lucknow is also the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. According to Government of India, the Lucknow district is one of the ninety Minority Concentrated Districts in India, shown by 2001 census data on population, socio-economic indicators and basic amenities indicators.
Located in what was historically known as the Awadh region, Lucknow has always been a multicultural city. Courtly manners, beautiful gardens, poetry, music, and fine cuisine patronized by the Persian-loving Shia Nawabs of the city are well known amongst Indians and students of South Asian culture and history. Lucknow is popularly known as the The City of Nawabs. It is also known as the Golden City of the East, Shiraz-i-Hind and The Constantinople of India.
Today, Lucknow is a vibrant city that is witnessing an economic boom and is among the top ten fastest growing non-major-metropolitan cities of India. It is a centre of Hindi and Urdu literature and is the second largest city in Uttar Pradesh, after Kanpur.
After 1350 AD the Lucknow and parts of Awadh region have been under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Awadh, the East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow has been one of the major centers of First War of Independence, participated actively in India’s Independence movement, and after Independence has emerged as an important city of North India.
Until 1719, subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow.
Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the Doab, the fertile plain between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.
Lucknow’s rise to growth and fame begins with its elevation as capital of Awadh by Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah. He was a great philanthropist and gave Lucknow a unique and enduring legacy. The architectural contributions of these Awadh rulers include several imposing monuments. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb.
In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favor of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it notionally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.
The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh’s vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh’s armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner – Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadr son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion’s defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.
Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.
The province of Awadh (anglicized to Oudh) was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow’s role in the stirring events of 1857.
The city played an important role in both the First War of Independence and the modern Indian freedom struggle. Whether it was the Lucknow Pact of 1916 or the Khilafat Movement, it brought the citizens on a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Mohammad Ali.
In 1901, after staying the capital of Oudh, since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.
Places to Visit
The Asafi Imambara (popularly known as Bara Imambara), the Chhota Imambara, Residency, and Shah Najaf are monuments of architectural importance at Lucknow. The famous ‘Bhul Bhulaiyan’ (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex. Some other places of interest are the Picture Gallery, Chattar Manzil, State Museum / Lucknow Zoo, Shaheed Smarak, Dilkusha, Ambedkar Memorial, Planetarium, Baradari and Ram Krishna Math.
The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly), the Clock Tower and the Charbagh Railway Station, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars.
St Joseph’s Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow.
Some of the oldest schools in India are also situated in Lucknow: La Martiniere Lucknow,Loreto Convent Lucknow and the Colvin Taluqdar’s College.Amiruddaula islamia Inter collge is about 100 years old.
Lucknow has several well-kept parks that attract the citizenry in large numbers on evenings, holidays and weekends. The bigger parks are Ambedkar Memorial and Lohia park in Gomti Nagar, Swarn Jayanti park and Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar, Dilkusha Park, Begum Hazrat Mahal Park, Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar, Haathi Park, Buddha park, and Neebu Park. The sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomti river is also worth visiting.
The city also has a Reserve Forest, Kukrail Crocodile Park (a picnic spot and Gharial rehabilitation centre). Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots.
Natural attractions accessible from Lucknow are Katarnia Ghat, Dudhwa National Park, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary and Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.
Lucknow is bravely struggling to retain its old world charm while at the same time acquiring a modern lifestyle. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy, and a love for gracious living. The Pehle-Aap (after you) culture, popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow, is waning. But a small part of Lucknow’s society still possesses such etiquette. This sublime cultural richness famous as Lakhnawi tehzeeb blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.
Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication.
The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine, with various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads.
The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.
Makkhan Malai, ‘Malai Ki Gilori’ of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk , the famous Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali,and ‘Kakori kebabs’ are very popular with food lovers.
The Chaat in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding chaat, like Shukla Chaat and Moti Mahal in Hazratganj, Radhey Lal in Aliganj, Chhappan Bhog in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar.
After a delicious dinner, one can have Paan at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.
Aminabad, a quaint bazaar like Delhi’s Chandni Chowk, is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre that caters to a wide variety of consumers.
Chowk and Nakhhas are markets in the old Lucknow area where you can get a feel of traditional Lucknow. Some other important shopping centres are Alambagh, Kapoorthala, Indiranagar, Mahanagar and Nishatganj.
The Hazratganj area is an upscale shopping market with colonial- style buildings. Interestingly, a popular pastime among the locals is window-shopping in the Hazratganj market. It is popularly referred to in Hinglish as Ganjing. The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.
Lucknowites are also experiencing the new waves of shopping malls and multiplex culture in India. The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar. Now Lucknow has many Mall-cum-multiplex like Saharaganj (PVR Cinemas), Fun Republic (Fun Cinemas) , Riverside Mall (Inox Theatre) and East End Mall (Wave Cinemas).
Language and poetry
Both Hindi and Urdu are spoken in Lucknow, but Urdu has been the lingua franca of the city for centuries. Under the rule of Nawabs, Urdu flourished and turned into one of the most refined languages. Hindu and Muslim poets like Brij Narayan Chakbast, Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish, Amir Meenai, Mirza Hadi Ruswa, Nasikh, Daya Shankar Kaul Nasim, Musahafi, Insha, Safi Lakhnavi, and the great Meer Taqi Meer took Urdu poetry to dizzying heights and established the Lakhnavi form of the language.
Lucknow is one of the world’s great cities for Shiite culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Shia elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain’s supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.
In recent years the use of Urdu has reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this charming city. The revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Kakori near Lucknow, was largely influenced by poetry and wrote verses under the pen name of “Bismil”. The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and literateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi.
Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of ‘mutiny’ of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. ‘Recalcitrance’ is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the ‘mutiny’ of 1857.
Education and Research
Lucknow is a hub of education and research with many premier institutions. Schools and higher educational institutions in Lucknow are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the UP government, or private organizations.
Higher education institutions in the city include six universities—University of Lucknow, UPTU, RMLNLU, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Amity University and Integral University; medical institutes like Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (CSMMU), upcoming Sahara Hospital, Apollo Hospital and ERA’s Lucknow Medical College; and management institutes like IIM Lucknow, Institute of Management Science University of Lucknow and Jaipuria Institute of Management.
Lucknow is famous all over India for its schooling. Public schools(e.g. Government Inter Colleges, Kendriya Vidyalayas, Army Public School, etc.) in Lucknow—which employ either English or Hindi(most of state government run schools are Hindi medium) as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of two administering bodies: the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education (UPB), Allahabad or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Delhi. Private schools (e.g. City Montessori School, Study Hall School, Lucknow Public School, Rani Laxmi Bai, St Francis,Mahanagar Boys Inter College, Bal Vidya Mandir, etc.) in Lucknow—which employ either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of three administering bodies: the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education (UPB), Allahabad or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), Delhi or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Delhi. Lucknow is home to really old and prestigious schools such as Colvin Taluqdars’ College, La Martinière College, Loreto Convent, St. Francis’ College and some new ones like Army Public School, Aminabad Inter College, St. Dominic Savio College, City Montessori School, Mahanagar Boys’ High School, St. Mary’s Convent Inter College, Spring Dale College, Jaipuria, Study Hall School and Lucknow Public School. After completing the ten-year secondary phase of their education under the 10+2+3 plan, students typically spend the next two years either in junior colleges or in schools with senior secondary facilities, during which their studies become more focused. They select a stream of study— liberal arts, commerce, science, or, less commonly, vocational. Upon completion, those who choose to continue, either study for a 3-year undergraduate degree at a college, or a professional degree in law, engineering, or medicine.
Notable higher education or research institutes in Lucknow include Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR) (Formerly: Industial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC)), Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR) and Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany and Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts.
Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying, pigeon flying, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city. Gulli Danda has become a benchmark for the youth to achieve.
The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium which also has a world-class swimming and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College.
The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is one of the most famous golf courses in India.
The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Suresh Raina and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon.
An inspiration for films
Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India and it would be true to say that without the Lakhnavi touch, Bollywood would not have been what it is today. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh like Majrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed Akhtar Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar Wajahat Mirza (writer of Mother India and Ganga Jamuna), Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jafri and K. P. Saxena have enriched Indian Cinema.
Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor’s Junoon, Muzaffar Ali’s Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Ray’s Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant’s Shakespeare Wallah was also partly shot in Lucknow.
Bahu Begum, Mehboob ki Mehndi, Mere Hazoor, Mere Mehboob, Chaudhvin Ka Chand, Pakeezah, Main Meri Patni Aur Woh, Gadar: Ek Prem Katha, Saher, Anwar and many more films have either been shot in Lucknow or have Lakhnavi backdrops.
For other uses, see Lucknow (disambiguation).
Clockwise from top: Bada Imambara, Charbagh Railway Station, Rumi Darwaza, Hazratganj, La Martiniere School, Ambedkar Memorial Park
|Nickname(s): The City of Nawabs, The Golden City of India, Constantinople of the East, Shiraz-e-Hind|
Location of Lucknow in Uttar PradeshShow map of Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow (India)Show map of India
|Coordinates: 26°48′N80°54′E / 26.8°N 80.9°E / 26.8; 80.9Coordinates: 26°48′N80°54′E / 26.8°N 80.9°E / 26.8; 80.9|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Lucknow Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Sanyukta Bhatia (BJP)|
|• Commissioner, Lucknow Division||Anil Garg, IAS|
|• District Magistrate and Collector||Kaushal Raj Sharma, IAS|
|• Inspector General, Lucknow Range||Ajay Narain Singh, IPS|
|Elevation||123 m (404 ft)|
|• Metro Rank||12th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN||2260xx / 2270xx|
|GDP (GDDP)||₹36,439.3344 crore (equivalent to ₹410 billion or US$6.3 billion in 2017) (2015-16) (for the district of Lucknow)|
|Sex ratio||915 ♀/1000 ♂|
|Languages||Hindi, Urdu, English|
Lucknow ( ( listen)Lakhna'ū) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division. It is the eleventh most populous city and the twelfth most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, and the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries. It continues to be an important centre of governance, administration, education, commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, music and poetry.
The city stands at an elevation of approximately 123 metres (404 ft) above sea level. Lucknow district covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres (976 sq mi). Bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur and Hardoi, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. Hindi is the main language of the city and Urdu is also widely spoken. Lucknow is the centre of Shia Islam in India with the highest Shia Muslim population in India.
Historically, the capital of Awadh was controlled by the Delhi Sultanate which later came under the Mughal rule. It was transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. In 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj. Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947. It has been listed the 17th fastest growing city in India and 74th in the world.
Lucknow, along with Agra and Varanasi, is in the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, a chain of survey triangulations created by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to boost tourism in the state.
"Lucknow" is the anglicised spelling of the local pronunciation "Lakhnau". According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana, a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana. The legend states that Lakshmana had a palace or an estate in the area, which was called Lakshmanapuri (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मणपुरी, lit. Lakshmana's city). However, the Dalit movement believes that Lakhan Pasi, a dalit ruler, was the settler of the city and is named after him. The settlement came to be known as Lakhanpur (or Lachhmanpur) by the 11th century, and later, Lucknow. A similar theory states that the city was known as Lakshmanavati (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मणवती, fortunate) after Lakshmana. The name changed to Lakhanavati, then Lakhnauti and finally Lakhnau. Yet another theory states that the city's name is connected with Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth. Over time, the name changed to Laksmanauti, Laksmnaut, Lakhsnaut, Lakhsnau and, finally, Lakhnau.
See also: Awadh and Oudh State
From 1350 onwards, Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company and the British Raj.
For about eighty-four years (from 1394 to 1478), Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jahangir (1569–1627) granted an estate in Awadh to a favoured nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who later built Machchi Bhawan on this estate. It later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region.
The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality, the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital. The city became North India's cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chota Imambara, and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the Nawab's enduring legacies is the region's syncretic Hindu–Muslim culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb.
Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan, also known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed Nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad, near Lucknow.
Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established as the Mughal Empire disintegrated. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula (r. 1753–1775), fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim. Roundly defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, he was forced to pay heavy penalties and surrender parts of his territory. Awadh's capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab, shifted his court to the city from Faizabad in 1775. The British East India Company appointed a resident (ambassador) in 1773 and by early 19th century gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were, however, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Maratha Empire and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan take the throne. He became a puppet king, and in a treaty of 1801, yielded large part of Awadh to the East India Company while also agreeing to disband his own troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-controlled army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal of the East India Company, although it continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819. The treaty of 1801 proved a beneficial arrangement for the East India Company as they gained access to Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful returns while the territory acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and demanded direct control over Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state for alleged maladministration. Awadh was placed under a chief commissioner – Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, then exiled by the East India Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Indian Rebellion of 1857, his 14-year-old son Birjis Qadra, whose mother was Begum Hazrat Mahal, was crowned ruler. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders sought asylum in Nepal.
Lucknow was one of the major centres of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and actively participated in India's independence movement, emerging as a strategically important North Indian city. During the Rebellion (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the majority of the East India Company's troops were recruited from both the people and nobility of Awadh. The rebels seized control of the state, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region. During that period, the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces during the Siege of Lucknow. The siege was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency and the Shaheed Smarak offer an insight into Lucknow's role in the events of 1857.
With the rebellion over, Oudh returned to British governance under a chief commissioner. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined; then in 1902, the title of chief commissioner was dropped with the formation of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, although Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.
The Khilafat Movement had an active base of support in Lucknow, creating united opposition to British rule. In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged into the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. In 1920 the provincial seat of government moved from Allahabad to Lucknow. Upon Indian independence in 1947, the United Provinces were reorganised into the state of Uttar Pradesh, and Lucknow remained its capital.
Lucknow witnessed some of the pivotal moments in the history of India. One is the first meeting of the stalwarts Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru & Mohd Ali Jinnah during the Indian National Congress session of 1916 (Lucknow pact was signed and moderates and extremists came together through the efforts of Annie Besant during this session only). The Congress President for that session, Ambica Charan Majumdar in his address said that "If the Congress was buried at Surat, it is reborn in Lucknow in the garden of Wajid Ali Shah".
The famous Kakori Incident involving Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Nath Lahiri, Roshan Singh and others followed by the Kakori trial which captured the imagination of the country also took place in Lucknow.
Culturally, Lucknow has also had a tradition of courtesans, with popular culture distilling it in the avatar of the fictional Umrao Jaan.
The Gomti River, Lucknow's chief geographical feature, meanders through the city and divides it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Situated in the middle of the Indus-Gangetic Plain, the city is surrounded by rural towns and villages: the orchard town of Malihabad, Kakori, Mohanlalganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, and Itaunja. To the east lies Barabanki, to the west Unnao, to the south Raebareli, while to the north lie the Sitapur and Hardoi. Lucknow city is located in a seismic zone III.
Lucknow has a humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from mid-November to February and dry, hot summers with thunderstorms from late March to June. The rainy season is from July to September when the city gets an average rainfall of 896.2 millimetres (35.28 in) from the south-west monsoon winds, and occasionally frontal rainfall will occur in January. In winter the maximum temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the minimum is in the 3 °C (37 °F) to 7 °C (45 °F) range. Fog is quite common from mid-December to late January. Occasionally, Lucknow experiences colder winter spells than places like Shimla and Mussoorie which are situated way high up in the Himalayas. In the extraordinary winter cold spell of 2012–13, Lucknow recorded temperatures below freezing point on 2 consecutive days and the minimum temperature hovered around freezing point for over a week. Summers are very hot with temperatures rising into the 40 °C (104 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F) range, the average highs being in the high of 30s (degree Celsius).
|Climate data for Lucknow (Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport)|
|Record high °C (°F)||30.4|
|Average high °C (°F)||22.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||7.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.0|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||20.2|
|Average rainy days||1.5||1.5||1.0||0.6||1.6||5.4||12.0||11.6||8.6||1.7||0.5||0.8||46.8|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
Flora and fauna
Lucknow has a total of only 4.66 percent of forest cover, which is much less than the state average of around 7 percent.Shisham, Dhak, Mahuamm, Babul, Neem, Peepal, Ashok, Khajur, Mango and Gular trees are all grown here.
Different varieties of mangoes, especially Dasheri, are grown in the Malihabad adjacent to the city and a block of the Lucknow district for export. The main crops are wheat, paddy, sugarcane, mustard, potatoes, and vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, and brinjals. Similarly, sunflowers, roses, and marigolds are cultivated over a fairly extensive area. Many medicinal and herbal plants are also grown here while common Indian monkeys are found in patches in and around city forests such as Musa Bagh.
The Lucknow Zoo, one of the oldest in the country, was established in 1921. It houses a rich collection of animals from Asia and other continents. The zoo also has enjoyable toy train rides for the visitors.The city also has a botanical garden, which is a zone of wide plant diversity. It also houses the Uttar Pradesh State Museum. It has sculptural masterpieces dating back to the 3rd century AD, including intricately carved Mathura sculptures ranging from dancing girls to scenes from the life of Buddha.
Lucknow is known for its dasheri mangoes, which are exported to many countries
Main article: Economy of Lucknow
The major industries in the Lucknow urban agglomeration include aeronautics, automotives, machine tools, distillery chemicals, furniture and Chikan embroidery.
Lucknow is among the top cities of India by GDP. Lucknow is also a centre for research and development as home to the R&D centres of the National Milk Grid of the National Dairy Development Board, the Central Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants, the National Handloom Development Corporation and U.P. Export Corporation.
Ranked sixth in a list of the ten fastest growing job-creating cities in India according to a study conducted by Assocham Placement Pattern, Lucknow's economy was formerly based on the tertiary sector and the majority of the workforce were employed as government servants. Large-scale industrial establishments are few compared to other north Indian state capitals like New Delhi. The economy is growing with contributions from the fields of IT, manufacturing and processing and medical/biotechnology. Business-promoting institutions such as the CII and EDII have set up their service centres in the city.
Lucknow is a growing IT hub with software and IT companies resident in the city. Tata Consultancy Services is one of the major companies with its campus in Gomti Nagar, which also is the second-largest such establishment in Uttar Pradesh. HCL Technologies also started its training program with 150 candidates in April 2016 at HCL Lucknow campus. There are many local open source technology companies. The city is also home to a number of important national and state level headquarters for companies including Sony Corporation and Reliance Retail. A sprawling 100 acres (40 ha) IT city costing 15 billion Rupees is planned by the state government at the Chak Ganjaria farms site on the road to Sultanpur and they have already approved special economic zone status for the project, which is expected to create thousands of job opportunities in the state.
The city has potential in the handicrafts sector and accounts for 60 percent of total exports from the state. Major export items are marble products, handicrafts, art pieces, gems, jewellery, textiles, electronics, software products, computers, hardware products, apparel, brass products, silk, leather goods, glass items and chemicals. Lucknow has promoted public-private partnerships in sectors such as electricity supply, roads, expressways, and educational ventures.
To promote the textile industry in the city, the Indian government has allocated Rs. 200 crore (2000 million rupees) to set up a textile business cluster in the city.
Administration and politics
Lucknow division which consists of six districts, and is headed by the Divisional Commissioner of Lucknow, who is an IAS officer of high seniority, the Commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including Municipal Corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division. The District Magistrate of Lucknow reports to the Divisional Commissioner. The current Commissioner is Anil Garg.
Lucknow district administration is headed by the District Magistrate of Lucknow, who is an IAS officer. The DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, hence the SSP of Lucknow also reports to the DM of Lucknow. The District Magistrate is assisted by a Chief Development Officer (CDO), eight Additional District Magistrates (ADM) (Finance/Revenue, East, West Trans-Gomti, Executive, Land Acquisition-I, Land Acquisition-II, Civil Supply), one City Magistrate (CM) and seven Additional City Magistrates (ACM). The district has five tehsils, viz. Sadar, Mohanlalganj, Bakshi ka Talab, Malihabad and Sarojini Nagar, each headed by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate. The current DM is Kaushal Raj Sharma.
Lucknow district comes under the Lucknow Police Zone and Lucknow Police Range, Lucknow Zone is headed by an Additional Director General ranked IPS officer, and the Lucknow Range is headed Inspector General ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Lucknow Zone is Abhay Kumar Prasad, and IG, Lucknow Range is Ajay Narain Singh.
The district police is headed by a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by ten Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. SP) (East, West, North, Trans-Gomti, Rural Area, Crime, Traffic, Security, Protocol and Modern Control Room), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers. Each of the several police circles is headed by a Circle Officer (CO) in the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police. The current SSP is Deepak Kumar.
The district police keeps the citizens under watch through high-technology control rooms and all important streets and intersections are under surveillance with the help of CCTVs and drone cameras. Mob controlling is carried out with the help of pepper spraying drones. There are more than 10,000 CCTV cameras deployed by the Lucknow Police Department across the city roads and trijunctions, making Lucknow the first city in the country to do so. The Lucknow Modern Police Control Room (abbreviated as MCR) is India's biggest 'Dial 100' service centre with 300 communication officers to receive distress calls from all over the state and 200 dispatch officers to rush for police help. It is billed as the India's most hi-tech police control room. Lucknow is also the center for 1090 Women Power line, a call center based service directed at dealing with eve-teasing. An Integrated 'Dial 100' Control Room building is also under construction which when completed will be the world's biggest modern Police Emergency Response System (PERS).
The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is subordinate to the District Magistrate and is assisted by a Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers.
Infrastructure and civic administration
The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Lucknow Development Authority (LDA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh government. The Divisional Commissioner of Lucknow acts as the ex-officio Chairman of LDA, whereas a Vice Chairman, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority. The current Vice-Chairman of Lucknow Development Authority is Prabhu Narayan Singh.
The Lucknow Municipal Corporations oversees civic activities in the city, the head of the corporation is the Mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation are the responsibility of the Municipal Commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh government-appointed Provincial Civil Service (PCS) officer of high seniority. The post Mayor of Lucknow is currently vacant and the Municipal Commissioner is Udairaj Singh.
Central government offices
Since 1 May 1963, Lucknow has been the headquarters of the Central Command of the Indian Army, before which it was the headquarters of Eastern Command.
Lucknow also houses a branch office of National Investigation Agency which is responsible for combating terrorist activities in India. It oversees five states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh for Naxal and terrorist activities.
The Commission of Railway Safety of India, under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, has its head office in the Northeast Railway Compound in Lucknow.
As the seat of the government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow is the site of the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha, a bench of the Allahabad High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
The city spans an area stretching from the Mohanlalganj (Lok Sabha constituency) in the south to Bakshi Ka Talab in the north and Kakori in the east. Lucknow Urban Agglomeration (LUA) includes Lucknow Municipal Corporation and Lucknow Cantonment with executive power vested in the municipal commissioner of Lucknow, who is PCS officer. The corporation comprises elected members (corporators elected from the wards directly by the people) with the city mayor as its head. An assistant municipal commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). As of 2008[update], there were 110 wards in the city. Morphologically, three clear demarcations exist; the Central business district, which is a fully built up area, comprises Hazratganj, Aminabad and Chowk A middle zone surrounds the inner zone with cement houses while the outer zone consists of slums. Lucknow has two Lok Sabha Constituencies Lucknow and Mohanlalganj and nine Vidhan Sabha constituencies.[better source needed]
The current Member of Parliament from Lucknow is Rajnath Singh.
Two major Indian National Highways have their intersection at Lucknow's Hazratganj intersection: NH-24 to Delhi, NH-30 to Allahabad via Raebareli, NH-27 to Porbandar via Jhansi and Silchar via Gorakhpur. Multiple modes of public transport are available such as metro rail, taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and compressed natural gas (CNG) low floor buses with and without air conditioning. CNG was introduced as an auto fuel to keep air pollution under control. Radio Taxis are operated by several major companies like Ola and Uber
See also: Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa
Lucknow city's bus service is operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC), a public sector passenger road transport corporation headquartered in Mahatma Gandhi road. It has 300 CNG buses operating in the city. There are around 35 routes in the city. Terminals for city buses are located in Gudamba, Viraj Khand, Alambagh, Scooter India, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Babu Banarasi Das University, Safedabad, Pasi qila, Charbagh, Andhe Ki Chowki, and the Budheshwar Intersection. There are four bus depots in Gomti Nagar, Charbagh, Amausi, and Dubagga.
See also: Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service and Lucknow Upnagariya Parivahan Sewa
The major Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Inter-state Bus Terminal (ISBT) in Alambagh provides the main inter and intrastate bus lines in Lucknow. Located on National Highway 25, it provides adequate services to ongoing and incoming customers. There is a smaller bus station at Qaiserbagh. The bus terminal formally operated at Charbagh, in front of the main railway station, has now been re-established as a city bus depot. This decision was taken by the state government and UPSRTC to decongest traffic in the railway station area. Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service is a key service for daily commuters who travel back and forth to the city for business and educational purposes. Air conditioned "Royal Cruiser" buses manufactured by Volvo are operated by UPSRTC for inter state bus services. Main cities served by the UPSRTC intrastate bus service are Allahabad, Varanasi, Jaipur, Agra, Delhi, Gorakhpur. The cities outside Uttar Pradesh that are covered by inter-state bus services are Jaipur, New Delhi, Gwalior, Bharatpur, Singrauli, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Dausa, Ajmer, Dehradun, and Haridwar.
See also: Lucknow–Kanpur Suburban Railway and Barabanki-Lucknow Suburban Railway